Judaism, Talmudic, Israel, Gemara, Bible, Masoretes, Hebrew
The Masoretic Text (MT)
The MT was primarily copied, edited and distributed by a group of Khazar Jews known as the Masoretes between the 7th and 10th centuries A.D. (This work is falsely attributed to Hebrews, but as history tells us, by this time, the Hebrews were already almost nonexistent). Though the consonants differ little from the text generally accepted in the early 2nd century (and also differ little from some Qumran texts that are even older), it has numerous differences of both greater and lesser significance when compared to (extant 4th century) manuscripts of the Septuagint, a Greek translation (made in the 3rd to 2nd centuries B.C.) of the Hebrew Scriptures that was in popular use in Egypt and Israel and that is believed by scholars to be the source often quoted in the New Testament. (There are no known authentic copies of the Septuagint in existence).
The Talmudic period
The Talmud "instruction, learning", from a root lmd "teach, study") is a central text of mainstream Judaism, considered second to the holy written Torah. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions.
The whole Talmud is over 6,200 pages long, written in Aramaic and quotes the Hebrew Bible at least once a page with the Hebrew version in use at the time. The Talmud contains the opinions of thousands of rabbis, many of whom are left unnamed, on a variety of subjects, including law, ethics, philosophy, customs, history, theology, lore and many other topics. The rabbis often argue with one another in a civilized manner on the pages.
The Talmud has two components: the Mishnah (Hebrew: ????), the first written compendium of Judaism's Oral Law; and the Gemara, an elucidation of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible. The terms Talmud and Gemara are often used interchangeably. The Gemara is the basis for all codes of rabbinic law and is much quoted in other rabbinic literature.
The whole Talmud is also traditionally referred to as Shas (???), a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, the "six orders" of the Mishnah. Of course, like with the writing of the Masoretic texts, the Talmudic period could not possibly have anything to do with actual Hebrews. After practicing their religion for over a thousand years, they would hardly need to discuss the meanings and rules of their religion.