Merenhor, Nikare, Tereru, Neferkahor, Pepysonbe, Neferkamin, Wadjkare, Khuihapy, Neferirkare

 

 

 

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7th and 8th Dynasty 2216-2170 B.C.E.

VII and VIII Dynasty 2216-2170 B.C.E

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  • Neby

  • Shemay
  • Khendu
  • Merenhor

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  • Neferkamin
  • Ibi
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  • Neferirkare

Pharaoh Mentuhotep II: Mentuhotep II is considered to be the first ruler of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. The Turin Canon credits him with a reign of 51 years. Many Egyptologists have long considered two rock reliefs, showing Mentuhotep II towering over smaller figures labeled king "Intef", to be conclusive evidence that his predecessor Intef III was his own father;

 

this is, however, not entirely certain, as these reliefs may have had other propagandistic purposes, and there are other difficulties surrounding Mentuhotep's true origin, his three name-changes, and his frequent attempts to claim descent from various gods.

 

Painted sandstone seated statue of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II, Egyptian Museum, Cairo. When he ascended the Theban throne, Mentuhotep II inherited the vast land conquered by his predecessors from the first cataract in the south to Abydos and Tjebu in the north. Mentuhotep II's first fourteen years of reign seem to have been peaceful in the Theban region as there are no surviving traces of conflict firmly datable to that period. In fact the general scarcity of testimonies from the early part of Mentuhotep's reign might indicate that he was young when he ascended the throne, an hypothesis consistent with his 51 years long reign.

 

Neferefre
Pepy I

In the 14th year of his reign, an uprising occurred in the north. This uprising is most probably connected with the ongoing conflict between Mentuhotep II based in Thebes and the rival 10th dynasty based at Herakleopolis who threatened to invade Upper Egypt. The 14th year of Mentuhotep's reign is indeed named Year of the crime of Thinis.

 

This certainly refers to the conquest of the Thinite region by the Herakleopolitan kings who apparently desecrated the sacred ancient royal necropolis of Abydos in the process. Mentuhotep II subsequently dispatched his armies to the north. The famous tomb of the warriors at Deir el-Bahari discovered in the 1920s, contained the linen-wrapped, unmummified bodies of 60 soldiers all killed in battle, their shroud bearing Mentuhotep II's cartouche. Due to its proximity to the Theban royal tombs, the tomb of the warriors is believed to be that of heroes who died during the conflict between Mentuhotep II and his foes to the north.[19] Merykara, the ruler of Lower-Egypt at the time may have died during the conflict, which further weakened his kingdom and gave Mentuhotep the opportunity to reunite Egypt.

 

The exact date when reunification was achieved is not known, but it is assumed to have happened shortly before year 39 of his reign. Indeed, evidence shows that the process took time, maybe due to the general insecurity of the country at the time: commoners where buried with weapons, the funerary stelae of officials show them holding weapons instead of the usual regalia, and when Mentuhotep II's successor sent an expedition to Punt some 20 years after the reunification, they still had to clear the Wadi Hammamat of rebels.

 


 

Pharaoh Inyotef I: Inyotef I was the founder of the 11th Dynasty. He took Thebes as the Capitol of Egypt and ruled it from 2074 till 2064 BC. He was the son of Montuhotep I, the "elder". The king took over a divided Egypt and tried to reunite the north and the south under his power. Herakleopolitans ruled Northern Egypt during the period of the 9th and 10th Dynasties' kings. Inyotef was buried in Thebes in the mortuary complex that he built. His royal successors honored his mortuary complex and did not modify it.

 

Pharaoh Inyotef III: Intef III's father and predecessor reigned for 49 years and Intef III may thus have accessed the throne a middle-aged or even elderly man. Although Intef III's name is lost in a lacuna of the Turin canon, a king list compiled in the early Ramesside period, its reign length is still readable on column 5, row 15, and given as 8 years. The relative chronological position of Intef III as the successor of Intef II and predecessor of Mentuhotep II is secured by his established parentage to these two kings as well as the Turin canon and two blocks from the temple of Montu at Tod.

 

Mentuhotep II, Akhtoy I, II, III, IV, and, V, Neferkare, Senenen, Meryhathor, Merykare, Mentuhotep, Inyotef I, II, and, III, Mentuhotep III, Mentuhotep IV

 

These blocks show the succession of kings from Intef I to Mentuhotep II and while Intef III's horus name is damaged, its position is certain.

 

The absolute dating of Intef III's reign is less certain and several dates have been proposed:

 

2069–2061 BC, 2063–2055 BC and 2016–2009 BC.

 

9th and 10th Dynasty 2170-2120 B.C.E.

Dynasty IX and X

 

11th Dynasty 2120 - 1976 B.C.E.

Dynasty XI a