Pharaoh Thutmoses III: Thutmose III, sixth Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, is often called “The Napoleon of Ancient Egypt.” He reigned from 1479 BC up until his death in 1425 BC and was responsible for the golden age of ancient Egypt. He amassed great wealth for Egypt.
As a great ruler and brilliant general, Thutmose III established “Pax Egyptica.” This term means a period of great peace and prosperity for his people. Thutmose III was a national hero and the best Pharaoh ancient Egypt has ever seen. The son of Thutmose II and a secondary wife, Iset, Thutmose III rose to co-regency with Hatshepsut (his father’s chief wife) when Thutmose II died in 1479 BC.
However, because Thutmose III was still a young boy of only seven, Hatshepsut ruled on her own while Thutmose III spent much of his time in the army earning military training.
Thutmose III had nine children with his wives.
His chief wife, Satia, bore him his first son, Amenemhat, who predeceased Thutmose III. Amenemhat was the original successor to the throne. When he died, Amenhotep II, son of Thutmose III and secondary wife, Hatshepsut-Meryetre (not to be confused with his aunt Hatshepsut), succeeded him. His many other wives were Nebtu, Menwi, Merti, Menhet and Neferure. Thutmose III gained the loyalty of his subjects and was also a fair captor of the cities he conquered. He was an accomplished statesman, horseman and athlete, lover of the arts, an archer and a keen military genius. He is credited with being the first person ever in history to take full advantage of the sea during a campaign of war against the wealthy kingdoms of Phoenicia.
Through the spoils of war, Thutmose III built many beautiful temples around Egypt. Thutmose III’s first military campaign is recorded in detail in Karnak, on the walls of a temple he built there. On the seventh pylon is an enormous relief of Thutmose III smiting his enemies.
Thutmose III’s military campaigns are among his greatest achievements as Pharaoh of Egypt. Overall, he launched at least 16 military campaigns including those in Palestine, Syria, Nubia and in Mesopotamia.Historians believe Thutmose III was not fond of his aunt and co-regent Hatshepsut.
She was not a warrior and allowed Egypt’s neighbors to believe they could free themselves from Egypt. Thutmose III’s formative years spent in the army made him an ingenious warrior who was not afraid of battle.
Throughout his reign, he captured nearly 350 cities during his leadership of Egypt and gained the complete respect of Egypt and the entire region.
His march to Gaza to conquer the city of Megiddo was marked by an unexpected decision to take a treacherous and unlikely approach through a narrow path over the mountains.
The city of Megiddo was defeated. The taking of Megiddo was important for Egypt’s economy. Without Megiddo’s open trade routes, Egypt could not flourish. The great king’s army of about 15,000 men stopped the uprising in this area and expanded Egypt to an extent it had never known before.
Thutmose III never lost a battle. He also launched attacks on cities in Palestine, Israel and Nubia, as well as coastal areas of Syria and Lebanon. To keep conquered leaders from attacking Egypt, he required that they send their children to Egypt for their education. This both solidified ties with the Egyptian empire and greatly deterred future attacks.
Pharaoh Akhenaten: Akhenaten (aka Akhenaton) is one of Ancient Egypt's most controversial and notable pharaohs. He ruled for 17 years during the 18th Dynasty and came to be known by some fascinating names, including Great Heretic, The Heretic Pharaoh, and Rebel Pharaoh.
Originally, he was known as Amenhotep IV, but then changed his name to reflect his link with the new supreme deity, whom he worshipped.
King Akhenaten was born to Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye. Akhenaten's wife is believed to have, at the very least, been a relative and most likely his half-sister, Nefertiti.
It was a common, and expected, tradition among ancient Egyptian pharaohs, for the ruler to marry the eldest daughter of his father.
Some believe she was only 12 when she married Akhenaten. Regardless of her relation to him, Nefertiti, is famous in her own right and famed for her beauty. While the pharaoh had other wives as well, depictions found inside temples indicate that Nefertiti was without a doubt his chief wife, at least for twelve or so years. The king eventually elevated Queen Nefertiti to divine status.
Queen Nefertiti bore six daughters for King Akhenaten, while two sons, including the famous King Tutakhaten, are believed to be born to the Pharaoh and one of his sisters. The other son, Smenkhkare, was crowned co-regent at only 16 years of age. King Tut was crowned King at the tender age of 8 or 9.
Akehnaton's parents were Amenhotep III and his Chief Queen Tiyee. Akehnaton succeeded to the thrown after his father's reign of 38 years and his subsequent death, only because Akehnaton's older brother had died of unknown and mysterious causes.
Scholars have surmised that Akehnaton as a child was shunned by most of his family and the public. He never received any honors and never appears in family portraits or was taken to public events. His mother, Queen Tiyee, however, favored him, which may have helped elevate him to the ultimate status he enjoyed.
Pharaoh Tutankhamun: Since his tomb was first discovered in 1922, the life of King Tut has continued to mystify and enthrall both historians and amateur sleuths alike. The young age of the ruler, his mysterious death and the curse that continues to be associated with ancient Egypt and King Tut have only increased the world's fascination with King Tut's life history. The mystery surrounding the young King Tut transformed him into the most famous of all Egyptian pharaohs. However, he was not considered a powerful or important leader during and after his reign.
How did a young boy who was pharaoh for only nine years become the icon of Egyptian royalty? Archeologists in the 20th century uncovered many tombs, coffins and funerary items in the Valley of the Kings at Thebes. The area was a popular research area for historians, scientists and wealthy investors. Historical texts left no records of the burial of King Tutankhamun.
Ahmose I 1550 - 1525 B.C.E.
Thuthmosis IV 1397 - 1388 B.C.E.
Amenophis IV (Akhenaten) 1350 - 1334 B.C.E.
Tutankhamun 1333 - 1323 B.C.E.
Archeologists found several clues in the tombs of others that suggested that Tut was buried in the Valley.
Between 1905 and 1908, Theodore Davis and Edward Aryton found three antiquities showing or referring to Tutankhamun's location in the Valley of the Kings.
These few clues led Howard Carter on a search for the mysterious pharaoh.
Ancient texts indicated that during his reign Tutankhamun had tried to return Egypt to a previous religious status.
Carter saw this as an additional sign that Tut’s tomb would be found within the Valley of the Kings.