Pharaoh Merneptah: Merneptah (or Merenptah) was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He ruled Egypt for almost ten years between late July or early August 1213 and May 2, 1203 BC, according to contemporary historical records.
He was the thirteenth son of Ramesses II and only came to power because all his older brothers, including his full brother Khaemwaset or Khaemwase, had died. By the time he ascended to the throne he was almost sixty years old. His throne name was Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru, which means "The Soul of Ra, Beloved of the Gods"
Pharaoh Ramses II: King Ramses the Second took the throne of Egypt in his early twenties (around 1279 BC) and ruled for 66 years until his death (1213 BC).
He was the third ruler of the 19th Dynasty and ruled for an amazing 67 years, the second longest reign of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs.
A variety of health problems (such as arthritis and arterial issues) may have contributed to the end of the life of Ramses II, but he had accomplished much in his time. Perhaps the best-known achievements of Ramses the Great are his architectural endeavors, most notable the Ramesseum and the temples of Abu Simbel.
Ramses II's interest in architecture resulted in the erection of more monuments than any of the other ancient Egyptian pharaohs. A significant number of architectural tributes attributed to Ramses 2 still dominate the landscape of Egypt today. The Ramesseum is a memorial temple complex situated close to Luxor (even closer to Qurna). Although it is in ruins now, it is still recognizable for the large Pylon of Ramesses inside which is useful as a historical document.
Pylon is the Greek word for the entrance of an Egyptian temple. The pylon is inscribed with images showing Ramesses victories over the Hittites in war, and the subsequent peace treaty which ensued.
This pylon, along with other inscriptions and temples created during Ramses II's reign, shows that this pharaoh wanted to be remembered for his influence on military, political, and religious life.
Also at the Ramesseum are the remains of a gigantic Ramses II statue. It used to be 56ft (17m) high, but now only parts of the torso and base remain. Other remains found are those of 2 large statues of a seated Ramesses 2 (the bust is on display in the British Museum).
Pharaoh Ramses III: Ramses III was the son of King Setnakhte and Queen Tiy-merenese. Although little is known of Ramses’ father, egyptologists believe Ramses III to be the grandson of the great Ramses II. He became king at the death of his father in March 1187 BC. He would rule for over 31 years until approximately 1151 BC. The next three rulers of Egypt, Ramses IV, Ramses V and Ramses VI, were all his sons. Despite a long rule, little is known of the royal family in the house of Ramses III.
He had many wives, including Isis, Titi and Tiy. He had at least 10 sons and one daughter. Many of his sons died before him and were buried in the Valley of the Queens.
King Ramses III held many names meant to identify him as close to the gods. His birth name of Ramses meant “Re has fashioned him”. Added to his name was “heqaiunu,” meaning “Ruler of Heliopolis.”
His throne name was Usermaatre Meryamun, or “Powerful is the Justice of Re, beloved of Amun.” Egyptologists spell his name in many ways, including “Ramesses III.” Despite his closeness to the gods, his long rule was marked with numerous problems.
Egypt maintained a place of extreme power in the world for over 2,000 years. However, the world was seeing major changes.
The Mediterranean area saw many wars and fall of empires during Ramses’ reign. A surge of homeless people and changing social connections created turmoil within Egypt. During his reign, the first recorded worker strike in history was recorded when workmen were failed to be paid. Although Ramses III began his rule by trying to peacefully consolidate the Empire, he soon came under attack. He managed attacks from Libya and the Sea People, along with other major conflicts.
Facing corruption and abuse, Ramses III spent a lot of time inspecting and reorganizing cult temples throughout Egypt. Instead of building new temples, he donated large amounts of land to the most important temples. By the end of his rule, one-third of all cultivated land belonged to the cult temples.
Ramesses I 1292 - 1290 B.C.E.
Seti I 1290 - 1278 B.C.E.
Ramesses II 1278 - 1213 B.C.E.
Merenptah 1213 - 1203 B.C.E.
Seti II 1203 - 1200 B.C.E.
Amenmesse 1200 - 1199 B.C.E.
Siptah 1199 - 1189 B.C.E.
Tawosret 1189 - 1185 B.C.E.
Sethnakht 1185 - 1182 B.C.E.
Ramesses III 1182 - 1851 B.C.E.
Ramesses IV 1151 - 1144 B.C.E.
Ramesses V 1144 - 1142
Ramesses VI 1142 - 1134 B.C.E.
Ramesses VII 1134 - 1126 B.C.E.
Ramesses VIII 1126 - 1125 B.C.E.
Ramesses IX 1125 - 1107 B.C.E.
Ramesses X 1107 - 1103 B.C.E.
Ramesses XI 1103 - 1069 B.C.E.